Article 160. The written form of the transaction.
1. A transaction in writing must be made by drawing up a document expressing its content and signed by the person or persons making the transaction, or persons duly authorized by them.
Bilateral (multilateral) transactions may be conducted in the manner specified in paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 434 of this Code.
The law, other legal acts and the agreement of the parties may establish additional requirements to which the form of the transaction must conform (making a certain form on a form, stamping, etc.) and stipulate the consequences of non-compliance with these requirements. If such consequences are not foreseen, the consequences of non-observance of the simple written form of the transaction (clause 1 of Article 162) apply.
2. The use of facsimile reproduction of a signature by means of mechanical or other copying, digital signature or other analogue of a handwritten signature is allowed in the cases and in the manner prescribed by law, other legal acts or agreement of the parties.
3. If a citizen, due to physical disability, illness or illiteracy, cannot personally sign, then at his request another citizen may sign the transaction. The signature of the latter must be witnessed by a notary or another official who has the right to perform such a notarial act, indicating the reasons due to which the person making the transaction could not sign it personally.
However, when concluding transactions specified in clause 4 of Article 185 of this Code, and powers of attorney to make them, the signature of the person who signs the transaction can also be certified by the organization where the citizen works, who cannot personally sign, or by the administration of the hospital He is on treatment.
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Links to other articles of chapter 9. Transactions:
Article 153. The concept of the transaction.
Article 154. Contracts and unilateral transactions.
Article 155. Obligations for a unilateral transaction.
Article 156. Legal regulation of unilateral transactions.
Article 157. Transactions concluded under the condition.
Article 158. The form of transactions.
Article 159. Oral transactions.
Article 161. Transactions made in simple written form.
Article 162. Consequences of non-observance of the simple written form of the transaction.
Article 163. Notarized transactions.
Article 164. State registration of transactions.
Article 165. Consequences of non-compliance with the notarial form of the transaction and the requirement of its registration.
Article 166. Contestable and void transactions.
Article 167. General provisions on the consequences of invalidity of a transaction.
Article 168. Invalidity of a transaction that does not comply with the law or other legal acts.
Article 169. Invalidity of a transaction made for the purpose, contrary to the basics of the rule of law and morality.
Article 170. Invalidity of imaginary and feigned transactions.
Article 171. Invalidity of a transaction made by a citizen who is declared incapable.
Article 172. Invalidity of a transaction made by a minor who is under the age of fourteen.
Article 173. Invalidity of a transaction of a legal entity that goes beyond its legal capacity.
Article 174. Consequences of limiting the authority to complete a transaction.
Article 175. Invalidity of a transaction made by a minor aged from fourteen to eighteen years.
Article 176. Invalidity of a transaction made by a citizen limited by court in legal capacity.
Article 177. Invalidity of a transaction made by a citizen who is unable to understand the significance of his actions or to direct them.
Article 178. Invalidity of a transaction made under the influence of delusion.
Article 179. Invalidity of a transaction made under the influence of deception, violence, threat, malicious agreement of the representative of one party with the other party or the confluence of difficult circumstances.
Article 180. Consequences of the invalidity of a part of a transaction.
Article 181. The limitation period for invalid transactions.