Article 170. Invalidity of imaginary and feigned transactions.
1. An imaginary transaction, that is, a transaction made only for the species, without the intention to create the legal consequences corresponding to it, is negligible.
2. A sham transaction, that is, a transaction that is made with the intention of covering up another transaction, is void. For the transaction, which the parties really had in mind, taking into account the substance of the transaction, the rules relating to it are applied.
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Links to other articles of chapter 9. Transactions:
Article 153. The concept of the transaction.
Article 154. Contracts and unilateral transactions.
Article 155. Obligations for a unilateral transaction.
Article 156. Legal regulation of unilateral transactions.
Article 157. Transactions concluded under the condition.
Article 158. The form of transactions.
Article 159. Oral transactions.
Article 160. The written form of the transaction.
Article 161. Transactions made in simple written form.
Article 162. Consequences of non-observance of the simple written form of the transaction.
Article 163. Notarized transactions.
Article 164. State registration of transactions.
Article 165. Consequences of non-compliance with the notarial form of the transaction and the requirement of its registration.
Article 166. Contestable and void transactions.
Article 167. General provisions on the consequences of invalidity of a transaction.
Article 168. Invalidity of a transaction that does not comply with the law or other legal acts.
Article 169. Invalidity of a transaction made for the purpose, contrary to the basics of the rule of law and morality.
Article 171. Invalidity of a transaction made by a citizen who is declared incapable.
Article 172. Invalidity of a transaction made by a minor who is under the age of fourteen.
Article 173. Invalidity of a transaction of a legal entity that goes beyond its legal capacity.
Article 174. Consequences of limiting the authority to complete a transaction.
Article 175. Invalidity of a transaction made by a minor aged from fourteen to eighteen years.
Article 176. Invalidity of a transaction made by a citizen limited by court in legal capacity.
Article 177. Invalidity of a transaction made by a citizen who is unable to understand the significance of his actions or to direct them.
Article 178. Invalidity of a transaction made under the influence of delusion.
Article 179. Invalidity of a transaction made under the influence of deception, violence, threat, malicious agreement of the representative of one party with the other party or the confluence of difficult circumstances.
Article 180. Consequences of the invalidity of a part of a transaction.
Article 181. The limitation period for invalid transactions.