Chapter 5. Participation of the Russian Federation, constituent entities of the Russian Federation, municipalities in relations regulated by civil legislation.

Article 124. The Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation, municipalities - the subjects of civil law.
1. The Russian Federation, constituent entities of the Russian Federation: republics, territories, regions, cities of federal significance, autonomous regions, autonomous districts, as well as urban, rural settlements and other municipal entities act in relations governed by civil law, on an equal footing with other participants in these relations - citizens and legal entities. 2. To the subjects of civil law referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, the rules governing the participation of legal entities in relations governed by civil law apply, unless otherwise provided by law or the particularities of these subjects.

Article 125. The procedure for the participation of the Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation, municipalities in relations governed by civil law.
1. On behalf of the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation, by their actions, they can acquire and exercise property and personal non-property rights and obligations, public authorities act in court within their competence established by acts determining the status of these bodies. 2. On behalf of municipalities, by their actions they can acquire and exercise the rights and obligations specified in paragraph 1 of this article, local governments within their competence, established by acts determining the status of these bodies. 3. In cases and in the manner prescribed by federal laws, decrees of the President of the Russian Federation and decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation, normative acts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and municipal formations, by their special instructions, state bodies, local governments, and legal individuals and citizens.

Article 126. Responsibility for the obligations of the Russian Federation, the subject of the Russian Federation, the municipality.
1. The Russian Federation, a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, a municipality is liable for its obligations with property belonging to them under the right of ownership, except for property that is assigned to legal entities established by them on the right of economic management or operational management, as well as property that can only be in state or municipal property. Levying land and other natural resources in state or municipal ownership is permitted in cases provided for by law. 2. Legal entities created by the Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation, municipalities, are not liable for their obligations. 3. The Russian Federation, constituent entities of the Russian Federation, municipalities are not liable for the obligations of the legal entities created by them, except as required by law. 4. The Russian Federation is not liable for the obligations of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and municipalities. 5. Subjects of the Russian Federation, municipalities are not liable for the obligations of each other, as well as for the obligations of the Russian Federation. 6. The rules of paragraphs 2–5 of this article do not apply to cases where the Russian Federation accepted the guarantee (surety) for the obligations of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, a municipality or legal entity, or the specified subjects accepted the guarantee (surety) for the obligations of the Russian Federation.

Article 127. Features of the responsibility of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation in relations regulated by civil law, with the participation of foreign legal entities, citizens and states.
The specifics of the responsibility of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation in relations regulated by civil law, with the participation of foreign legal entities, citizens and states, are determined by the law on state immunity and property.

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