Chapter 8. Intangible benefits and their protection.
Article 150. Intangible benefits.
1. Life and health, personal dignity, personal integrity, honor and good name, business reputation, privacy, personal and family secrets, the right to free movement, the choice of a place of residence and residence, the right to a name, the right of authorship, other personal non-property rights and other intangible benefits belonging to a citizen from birth or by virtue of the law are inalienable and non-transferable in any other way. In cases and in the manner prescribed by law, personal non-property rights and other intangible benefits belonging to the deceased may be exercised and protected by other persons, including the heirs of the right holder.
2. Intangible benefits are protected in accordance with this Code and other laws in the cases and in the manner prescribed by them, as well as in those cases and the extent to which the use of methods for the protection of civil rights (Article 12) follows from the essence of the non-material right violated the consequences of this violation.
Article 151. Compensation for moral harm.
If a citizen has suffered moral damage (physical or moral suffering) by actions that violate his personal non-property rights or infringe upon other intangible benefits belonging to the citizen, as well as in other cases provided by law, the court may impose on the violator the obligation to compensate for the specified damage.
In determining the amount of compensation for non-pecuniary damage, the court takes into account the degree of guilt of the offender and other circumstances worthy of attention. The court must also take into account the degree of physical and moral suffering associated with the individual characteristics of the person who has been harmed.
Article 152. Protection of honor, dignity and business reputation.
1. A citizen shall have the right to demand in court a refutation of information defaming his honor, dignity or business reputation, if the information disseminated does not prove that they correspond to reality.
At the request of those interested, protection of the honor and dignity of a citizen is allowed even after his death.
2. If information discrediting the honor, dignity or business reputation of a citizen is disseminated in the mass media, they must be refuted in the same mass media.
If the specified information is contained in a document originating from the organization, such document shall be replaced or withdrawn.
The procedure for refutation in other cases is established by the court.
3. A citizen, in respect of whom the mass media published information that infringes his rights or interests protected by law, has the right to publish his answer in the same mass media.
4. If the court decision is not executed, the court shall have the right to impose a fine on the violator, in the amount and in the manner prescribed by the procedural legislation, to the income of the Russian Federation. Payment of the fine does not relieve the offender from the obligation to perform the action provided for by the court decision.
5. A citizen, in respect of whom information that defames his honor, dignity or business reputation is disseminated, has the right, along with the refutation of such information, to demand compensation for damages and moral damage caused by their distribution.
6. If it is impossible to identify a person who disseminated information discrediting the honor, dignity or business reputation of a citizen, a person in respect of whom such information was disseminated has the right to apply to the court to declare the information disseminated as untrue.
7. The rules of this article on the protection of the business reputation of a citizen respectively apply to the protection of the business reputation of a legal entity.
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